Globally, 3.4 million people are affected (Prevalence) with 430,000 new cases each year (Incidence)
- 90% incidence post 55 years of age. Average onset (65-85 years)
- Mostly males (72%)
- Commonest complaint – Hematuria (blood in urine)
- Caucasians – 2X risk; but blacks present at advanced stage
1. Smoking is the leading cause.
- Associated with over 50% of all Bladder Cancers
- Quit smoking. It increases the risk by 3 times.
2. Avoid Arsenic
- Contaminated water is the commonest source of Arsenic.
- Check your drinking water source for levels of Arsenic regularly.
3. Occupational Risk – Avoid Aromatic Amines & other chemicals used in Rubber, Textile, Aluminium Industries etc.
- Occupations at risk are bus drivers, motor mechanics, machine setters, blacksmiths, rubber, leather, shoe workers, and Hairdressers (hair dyes)
- Wear Protective Gear; Be aware of the chemicals always.
4. Drink 6 or more cups of fluids every day.
- The risk of bladder cancer decreased by 7% for every 240 mL (1 cup) of fluid added.
[American Journal of Physiology. 283 (5): R993–R1004. ]
- Frequent urination will cleanse the bladder of any accumulated carcinogens.
5. Bladder Issues that increase cancer risk.
- Frequent Urinary Tract Infections
- Kidney and Bladder Stones
- Long time use of urinary catheter
- Schistosomiasis (Parasite; Rare in West)
6. Eat Citrus Fruits & Cruciferous vegetables such as
- Cabbage, Cauliflower, broccoli, bok choy,
- Brussels sprouts, garden cress etc
- Statistically Significant reduction in risk.
[Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. Supplementum. 42 (218): 25–36.]
7. Supplements & Medication
- Avoid supplements that contain aristolochic acid (Herbal Products)
- Diabetes drug Pioglitazone raises the risk. Banned in certain countries.
- Cancer medication cyclophosphamide or radioation therapy can raise the risk.